Виды касин:

1) pathavi-kasina (патави-касина): медитация на землю. Часто монахи делают небольшие фигуры из земли (или из песка), которые, естественно, со временем разрушаются. Подобная практика позволяет увидеть непостоянство этого элемента. Можно наблюдать за тем, как меняется земля в жаркую, сухую погоду и во время дождя.

2) apo-kasina (апо-касина): медитация на воду. Лучше всего практиковать у водоемов, наблюдая за тем, как непостоянна гладь воды, как меняют свое направление и размер волны, как из-за ветра возникает рябь. Можно медитировать на дождь, на воду в реке.

3) tejo-kasina (тежо-касина): медитация на огонь. Мы можем наблюдать за огнем свечи, костра, спички, за тем, как тлеет благовоние. К медитации на огонь относится и медитация на солнце.

4) vayo-kasina (вайо-касина): медитация на воздух. Медитировать на воздух - значит наблюдать за его движением, за порывами ветра. Например, можно концентрировать свое внимание на том, как движется лист дерева из-за ветра.

Следующие 4 элемента – это цвета. Для такой медитации обычно рисуют точку или круг соответствующего цвета и сосредотачивают свое внимание на ней. Такая практика используется для развития концентрации у молодых монахов, только начавших практиковать медитацию.

5) nila-kasina (нила-касина): медитация на голубой (синий) цвет.

6) pita-kasina (пита-касина): медитация на желтый цвет.

7) lohita-kasina (лоита-касина): медитация на красный цвет.

8) odata-kasina (одата-касина): медитация на белый цвет.

Последние 2 объекта медитации, предлагаемые Буддой, связаны во многом с абстрактным мышлением.

9) aloka-kasina (алока-касина): медитация на свет. Под «светом» обычно понимается не огонь (это уже будет практика тежо-касина), а дневное освещение, сам по себе солнечный свет. Во время этой практики монахи чаще всего медитируют на небо, точнее, на свет, который из него исходит.

10) akasa-kasina (акаса-касина): медитация на пространство. Это сложная практика, связанная с тем, что пространство, на которое мы собираемся концентрировать свое внимание, не было слишком большим и слишком маленьким. Тяжело медитировать на пространство, лежа на огромном поле, так же тяжело медитировать, находясь в маленьком замкнутом пространстве. Мы должны осознавать пространство, которое нас окружает, концентрировать на нем, на том, что в нем происходит.

Выдержка о касинах из книги Д.Корнфилда "Современные буддийские мастера", глава о Сунлуне саядо:

"Например, можно воспользоваться цветными дисками касина. Скажем, йогин берет цветной диск или точку и помещает её на соответствующее расстояние – около полутора метров от себя. Он садится, скрестив ноги под собой, и обращает лицо к диску. Выпрямив туловище, он глядит на диск; глаза раскрыты не слишком широко и не слишком узко. Он настойчиво направляет ум на диск, чтобы обрести неподвижность ума. Йогин продолжает это упражнение до тех пор, пока, даже закрыв глаза, не станет воспринимать умственный образ цвета. Это будет приобретенным образом (уггаха-нимитта). По мере того, как он продолжает направлять внимание на этот образ, может возникнуть безупречный сопутствующий образ (патибхага-нимитта). Этот сопутствующий образ появляется вместе с умом. Если йогин желает видеть его вдали, он видит его вдали; если он желает видеть его вблизи, или справа, или слева, внутри, снаружи, сверху, снизу, – он там его и видит. После приобретения сопутствующего образа йогин сохраняет его с почтением, совершая постоянные усилия. Благодаря этому ему становится легче практиковать, и после должной практики он достигает сосредоточения доступа. За сосредоточением доступа следует устойчивое медитативное погружение, джхана. Упражнения с касина могут вызвать все стадии устойчивого погружения.

Точно так же он может практиковать с касиной земли, с касиной воды, с касиной огня, и так далее. Одно из благотворных последствий, приобретаемых с помощью усердной практике с касиной земли, заключается в том, что человек достигает сверхъестественной способности ходить по воде как по земле. Если же он приобретает сверхъестественную способность благодаря практике с касиной воды, он может вызвать дождь или заставить воду изливаться из своего тела. Если он приобретает сверхъестественную силу благодаря практике с касиной огня, он оказывается способным производить дым и пламя. Но в наши дни приобрести эти способности почему-то нельзя. Сунлун-саядо однажды сказал, что времена стали неблагоприятны. Можно приобрести сосредоточение доступа при помощи такой практики; но вряд ли при этом будут приобретены сверхъестественные способности и их благотворные последствия. Скажем, йогин практикует упражнения с касиной земли. Он приобретает власть над перцептивными образами (нимитта); скажем, он идет к пруду, садится около него и пробуждает в себе элементы касины земли. Затем, глядя на воду пруда, он старается превратить её в землю, так чтобы ему можно было ходить по ней. Он обнаружит, что в лучшем случае вода уплотняется в слякотную землю, которая не сможет удержать его, если он попробует по ней идти. Возможно, в других странах есть йогины, которые делают это лучше; но я полагаю, нам можно принять за общее правило, что приобретение полных благотворных последствий упражнений с касинами в наше время остается труднодостижимым".

Ролик о медитации на цветные касины. Видео на тайском, но в середине есть весьма полезное отображение, показывающая каким образом удерживается в уме визуальный образ, который становится все более ярким и стабильным.

COLOUR-KASINA MEDITATION By Thitapuñño Bhikkhu

COLOUR-KASINA MEDITATION
By Thitapuñño Bhikkhu

INTRODUCTION

Kasina objects (kasina meaning “all, complete, whole”) are among the meditation subjects
recommended by the Buddha that are suitable for developing concentration conducive to the four
absorptions (jhana).1 For a number of reasons meditation practice using kasina objects has not
been very popular in the West. One of the reasons may be that the method is not amenable to be
taught in groups – as is ordinarily done in meditation retreats. Kasina meditation requires that
each meditator use their own kasina device and their surrounding environment must be free from
visual stimulants. Another reason may be that it is not easy to find qualified teachers who have
had experience with the method. Unfortunately information on this method of practice is limited
and often vague also. Furthermore, some teachers discourage the practice of kasina meditation on
the grounds that it is psychologically dangerous. This is an unjustified notion, although as with
any kind of meditation practice a teacher should closely supervise students practicing kasina
methods.2

Colour-kasina meditation may prove to be very useful for some meditators who have found
limited success using the breath or other subjects of meditation. Like any meditation subject or
method there are advantages and disadvantages to kasina practice. Among its advantages, the
colour-kasina meditation object has the quality of being clearly defined in terms of its size,
texture, and optical resolution (since it is a visual object), whereas the breath, likely the most
common meditation subject, is a tactile object that is harder to define initially due to its “fuzzy”
quality. Indeed, as meditators deepen their mindfulness and concentration in a particular sitting,
the kasina object will appear to be clearer and more well-defined. In the case of the breath,
however, as one gains more serenity the object becomes more subtle and is harder to apprehend.
This is not a disadvantage of breath meditation per se, since its very demand for higher
mindfulness and concentration stimulates the development of these faculties. But for a beginner it
may be easier to grasp a very concrete object such as a colour-kasina during the initial stages of
development. During the development of serenity using kasina devices, the gradual improvement
in mindfulness and concentration become evident by the emergence of clear signs (visual and/or
mental) called nimitta that mark definite stages of the process. During practice, these nimitta, or
“signs,” facilitate the meditator’s assessment of progress by establishing clear reference points.
One drawback to the practice is that kasina devices have to be made and are cumbersome to store
and transport. The main drawback of kasina meditation is that it may place excessive strain on the
eyes in some individuals, giving rise to eye irritation or fatigue. One should try, within reason, not
to discontinue the practice if problems of this nature arise, although relief will normally occur
during the regular intervals (or longer periods) during which the eyes are closed. In any case, bear
in mind that ordinarily meditators have to put up with aches and pains over long periods of time
as they develop their regular sitting practice.

BASIC INSTRUCTION

The following instructions are given in brief and include some aspects not mentioned in the
classical texts. However, meditators are advised to consult available texts that deal with points not
mentioned in this article.3 Initially one should find and consult a teacher with experience in
kasina meditation, then one should prepare one or several kasina devices (see instructions at the
end of this article), and seek a suitable place for practicing. The area of practice must be quiet and
well-lit. One must make sure the practice area is also clean and tidy. The background against
which the kasina device is placed must not be cluttered or show visually-distracting features.
One’s sitting posture must be comfortable (any arrangement of the legs/arms will do as long as
the back is self-supported and straight). The image should be imprinted on a suitable surface such
as a plate. Usually a coloured or white circle with a black border centred on a square white
surface will do (squares, triangles or other regular polygons could be used as suitable images, as
well).

The kasina device should be placed between 1.5 and 3 me

As one advances in the practice over days, weeks or months, one may notice that the mind
stabilizes and is able to maintain a lucid attention on the object for longer periods. At some point
the meditator may find that the retinal image is so strongly infused by such attention that it will
start to “overlap” with the direct visual perception of the physical image. Occasionally the
practitioner may find that what used to be the white background area surrounding the object
acquires a light tone corresponding to the colour of the main (kasina) object. The meditator may
even feel that the surrounding area has turned into the colour of the object. Since the retinal image
is the “negative” of the physical image, the “overlap” will result in the effective disappearance of
the physical image – even while one continues, open-eyed, to stare at it. This gives rise to a new
kind of image which is actually dark black (a dark shadow; we may call this nimitta the
“eclipsed” image).4  At this crucial point the meditator must not slacken effort but must continue
striving to sharpen the focus of attention on the new nimitta. 5
If one is able to sustain one’s effort, this “eclipsed” image will eventually – and some times quite
suddenly – disappear, giving rise to a remarkably bright image (known as the “counterpart
sign”).6 This image will show itself with remarkable brightness akin to the disk of the full moon
or the sun’s disk (assuming the kasina object used is circular), as seen on a hazy or foggy day.
When it appears, this bright and perfectly uniform mental image marks the entrance into accessor
neighbourhood-concentration. In access concentration the mind is temporarily free from the
mental hindrances and will experience a level of stability, calm and satisfaction superior to the
ordinary waking state. The stage may now be set to achieve the strong serenity levels of jhana or
“fixed penetration” (appana-samadhi).

The practitioner must strive to sustain the access concentration state for as long as possible. One
must not rest content with the initial, momentary success which has been achieved by generating
the counterpart image – as it may be very difficult to reproduce the result at a later session.
During these elusive and sporadic periods of attainment, effort must be made to reproduce it as
many times as possible – especially during the same sitting session. At this stage one must strive
to develop one’s level of proficiency by guarding the ability to generate the counterpart sign. This
means that one must be careful not to indulge in distractions or be careless in one’s purity of
deed, word and thought; one must also guard the sense-doors, be moderate in eating, mindful and
self possessed, and must aspire with perseverance to eliminate the hindrances and maintain
concentration. The need for continued practice is important in order to stabilize the attainment.
When the kasina object is mastered completely, the meditator should be able to generate the
counterpart sign without requiring the use of a physical object. At the stage of mastery the
meditator should also be able to modulate the size of the nimitta at will (as is described in the
texts).3a, b, d

With such mastery of the kasina the meditator may remain in the stillness of the concentrated
state for long periods of time and pursue further progress in the development of serenity. If the
meditator has subsequently mastered the attainment of first jhana (as described in the
commentarial texts) he/she may pursue the development towards the quiet and stillness of the
second jhana. At this stage all discursive thought has ceased and volitional impulses will be
almost entirely suppressed, yet the potential will remain at hand to let go of the remaining jhanic
factors, leading the mind to the remaining material jhana states.7

The ultimate benefit of these attainments is that the profound stillness they engender offers the
practitioner the most suitable conditions to attempt, in a systematic manner, to gain insight
knowledge. In this next stage of development, as soon as the mind exits the concentration state
and begins to take up any object (pre-determined or not), it must thoroughly examine that object
reflectively in the light of any of the three characteristics of existence: impermanence,
unsatisfactoriness, or not-self. This sequence of events is commonly known as the “development
of insight preceded by serenity.” Having set out in brief this description of the kasina method,
however, we will not take up this topic here.

PREPARATION OF A KASINA DEVICE

Preparation of the kasina device must be carried out with great care and attention. Since the
device is an important element conducive to insight and concentration it must be treated carefully
and should always be kept and placed in appropriate spots where risk of damage is minimized. It
must not be treated as an ordinary object or tool. It is a good idea to prepare and try to practice
with the four traditional kasina colours: white, yellow, red and blue.8

Suggested dimensions:
Coloured circle diameter = 9”
Circle centred on square of side = 27”
Black border for circle, thickness = (a generous) 3/4”

These measurements are derived from the standard 9 inch diameter circle described in the texts.
The square side length for the plate or flat surface (plywood or other suitable rigid material) is
obtained by multiplying 9 inches by 1.618 (the golden ratio or golden proportion) 3 times and
dividing the product by the square root of 2. The border thickness (actually .81”) results from
dividing 9 inches by 1.618 (5 times). Creating the device based on these proportions results in a
harmonious-looking figure that is pleasing to the eye.
Initially, you can try indigo blue on one side of the plate and a vivid, school bus yellow for the
figure on the other side. Acrylic paint, or other suitable media, subsequently coated with glossy
lacquer for the circle and border (leaving the white surface non-glossy) works very well. The
fewer irregularities in the coloured image and border, and the less texture coarseness in the kasina
surface, the better – particularly if the device is intended for use by a beginner.

NOTES

1) See for example: a) Mahasakuludayi Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya,77), in The Middle Length
Discourses of the Buddha, trans. Bhikkhu Ñanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, Wisdom Publications:
Boston, 1995; see also: saigon.com/~anson/ebud/majjhima/077-mahasakuludayi-e1.htm);
b) Sangiti Sutta (Digha Nikaya, 33), in The Long Discourses of the Buddha, trans. Maurice
Walshe, Wisdom Publications: Boston,1995.

2) Individuals with a history of psychotic disorders, on medication or treatment for such disorders
(including depression) should not practice this type of meditation. If hallucinations or recall of
repressed memories manifest in individuals who have never experienced psychotic disorders, they
should consult with their teacher as soon as possible.

3) See for example, a) Vimuttimagga (The Path of Freedom) by the Arahant Upatissa, trans. Rev.
N.R.M. Ehara, Soma Thera, and Kheminda Thera, pp.124-27, Buddhist Publication Society
(BPS): Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1995; b) The Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation, by Ven.
Henepola Gunaratana, BPS; c) “The Mystery of the Breath Nimitta” by Ven. Sona, in
-- d) Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purification)
by Ven. Buddhaghossa, III.97, V.12-V20, XIII.95, XVII.143, BPS: Kandy, Sri Lanka.

4) The fading out of the working object at this stage is analogous to the fading away of the
characteristic sign of the object in breath meditation – which usually happens as a result of its
turning more subtle as the body and mind approach serenity. This would also mark an equivalent
stage of serenity development using a kasina object.

5) Individuals of a speculative temperament are advised not to fall into the temptation of jumping
to conclusions or try to come up with theories regarding any visual effects experienced in
practice.

6) This is what the texts call the counterpart sign or patibhaga-nimitta, which may also be
referred to as aloka- kasina (light kasina) when the sign is generated using a colour kasina. In
summary, there are four signs (nimitta) to consider in the process of reaching access
concentration using the kasina method: 1) The coloured kasina object itself (the “physical” or
“working” image); 2) The retinal image (the “negative” visual image of the coloured kasina
object); 3) The “eclipsed” image (the dark shadow visual image arising when 1) and 2) neutralize
each other); and 4) The bright counterpart sign (a mental image).

7) In a sense, the whole process of developing deep concentration, from beginning to end, is a
motion of the mind seeking the characteristics of non-proliferation and non-diversity of
perception. Thus, one selects the kasina devise from amongst the myriad of possible objects; then
one focuses attention on a particular feature within the main (composite) object; next, focus is
directed onto an image which is enhanced and more refined than the original; and then one
continues by discerning a more refined single aspect in relation to subsequent visual or mental
objects of focus.

8) The choice of a suitable colour to practice with may be determined by the teacher based on the
student’s temperament. The commentaries indicate that colour kasinas are particularly suited for
greedy temperaments (see Ref. 3d). If the meditator has strong aesthetic inclination towards a
particular colour, it may be a good first choice. In general, white would be suitable for most
temperaments; yellow has an energizing quality and is a good subject for those who are lethargic
or tend to be depressed; blue is suitable for one of greedy or angry temperament due to its cooling
quality (but the reason one may use it may be that it also has a refreshing quality when one
practises in a hot climate); red is a warm colour that may be suitable for a person who is apathetic
or who practices in a cold climate. One may experiment by practising with a particular colour for
a few days, then switching to the next for the same number of days, and so on, until one is able to
assess by experience what is personally more suitable.